Summary of Initial Coin Offerings (ICO)

An ICO is an unregulated method of raising funds for various cryptocurrency businesses. It is something that startups use to get through the regulatory and regulatory process that banks and venture capitalists require. In such a campaign, a large amount of cryptocurrencies are sold to project sponsors very quickly because of other cryptocurrencies or legal entities.
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How it happens

If a company wants to raise money using seed money, there should be a plan in a white paper detailing the project. It should explain what the project is about, what the project wants, what it wants to achieve. It should also mention the amount of money that will be needed to do all the work and the number of pioneers that they must keep.
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The plan should also specify the type of funding approved and the expected length of time the campaign will run. At such a meeting, supporters and fans of the project will buy cryptocoins using real or fiat money. The funds are called tokens and are very similar to shares of companies that are sold to investors during IPOs. If the required minimum investment is not reached, then the investment is returned and the entire ICO is considered unsuccessful. Once the requirements are met within the set time, the money can be used to start the scheme or even finish it if it is still running.
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Investors who participate in the project early on are strongly motivated to buy crypto-currency in the hope that the system will be successful and after implementation they will receive more profit. There have been many successful projects of this type in various financial countries and that is one major factor that motivates investors.
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ICOs can be compared to crowdfunding and IPOs. As with IPOs, stock must be sold by the original company to raise funds for the company. The only difference is that IPOs meet with investors while ICOs work with sponsors who are as interested in new projects as the general public.
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However, ICOs are different from crowdfunding because those who pursue ICOs are often motivated by the potential for greater financial returns. Funds raised through crowdfunding are essentially donations. That’s why ICOS is called crowdfunding.
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There have been many successful events so far. ICOs are a smart tool in our digital age. However, it is important for investors to be careful because there are some campaigns that can be fraudulent. This is because they are very uncontrolled. The financial authorities do not participate in this and if you lose money through such methods, it is difficult to follow up to get compensation.
To that end, there are some jurisdictions that do not allow the use of ICOs at all. It is important to buy such coins from reliable sources to be safe.
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What is Cryptocurrency?

Crypto Currency (or Cryptography) is a digital instrument that is designed to function as a secret exchange system to protect your transactions, additional units, and transfer of assets. Cryptocurrency is a type of digital currency, alternative currency, and virtual currency. Cryptocurrencies use decentralized regulation instead of a centralized system of digital currencies and central banks.
Decentralized control Each cryptocurrency works through the blockchain, which is the basis of public transactions, which works as a distributed ledger.

A fixed meaning

According to Jan Lansky, crypto can be a system that fulfills four conditions:
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• This policy defines whether new units of cryptocurrency can be created. If new units of cryptocurrency are created, the system identifies the conditions of the source and ownership of these new units.
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• If two different instructions for changing the purchase of the same cryptographic units are entered, the system does more of them.

• The system allows operations to be performed in such a way that the owner of the cryptographic unit is changed. The guarantee can be issued by the guaranteeing agency for the owners of these units.

• Ownership of cryptocurrency units can be identified cryptographically.

In short

Decentralized cryptography together creates a whole system of cryptographic services at a speed that is defined during the creation of the system and is publicly known. In central banks and financial systems, such as the Federal Reserve System, supervisory committees or governments control the supply of money by printing units of official currency or requiring additional digital books. In the case of decentralized cryptocurrency, governments or companies cannot create new units, however they do not cooperate with other companies, banks or organizations that have a property value. The first technical system based on stable cryptocurrencies was created by a group or individual known as Satoshi Nakamoto.
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As of May 2018, there were more than 1,800 crypto transparent specifications. The system of crypto-money, security, integrity and security records are maintained by a group of suspicious groups called minors who use their computers to verify the time of transactions, and add to the registry under a real time schedule.
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Most cryptocurrencies are designed to gradually reduce the production of this currency by reducing the amount of the currency that will be in circulation. Compared to the amount spent by financial institutions or savings

Money in hand, the police can be difficult to catch crypto. The problem comes from the use of cryptographic technologies.

Characteristics of a Good Online Betting Company

In today’s world, every person in the world has been running day and night with one last thought – To make money.

With more and more opportunities every day and different areas where one can earn money, one of the emerging platforms to increase income and risks is online betting.

Betting – A brief summary

Betting has always been a stable platform where people make a lot of money. People have been betting on the various teams available, and they have seen steady growth in investment and sales for the first time in the field.

In any case, nowadays, to make things easier for people who are interested in betting, there are online betting companies. People go to the brickyard not too long ago to bet on the person who has been selected to participate in a particular game. The establishment of online betting companies has made betting as easy as possible for people, and it is very profitable for people to bet on a large scale.

Online betting company – profile

Online betting sites have made many people who are skeptical about making money to start betting in different categories.

These platforms have managed to bring in a large audience and provide so much information on betting that even a layperson can understand how to bet in detail and have the confidence to start betting.

Some of the most popular features of online betting companies are summarized as follows:

Easy access: Unlike traditional brick and mortar betting sites where people have to transport themselves from place to place to bet, online betting platforms eliminate the need to travel from place to place. People can easily bet via mobile phone or computer from anywhere at any time. This also removes the time restrictions placed in the physical betting company so that they can bet whenever they want, at any time of the day through the available online betting platform.

Occasional promotions: This is one of the things that makes it different from regular betting. Various types of online betting offer periodic bonuses to consumers and promotions to people who enter their platform for the first time, thus giving a start to all consumers who use the platform without the need for money from their pocket to begin with. Doing so gives the customer the opportunity to explore the site and find their preferred betting options.

Different options: Online betting companies offer something unique. They can find all the available betting events and groups under one page, unlike in the past when only a few events were available at a particular location. They have to move from one place to another to find an event that they like. Online betting companies offer a one-stop shop for all available events and betting options.

Promotional events: Online betting companies offer free access to all events to people who are registered as members of the company. In this way, a person can move all the activities that they have invested in without additional costs and with the ease of their phones or computers. This way, members don’t need to subscribe to a different channel to watch the event they want to bet on.

More payment options: With the number of new payment methods being introduced around the world, there are fewer payment methods when it comes to sports betting compared to online betting companies. Online companies have adopted almost all available payment methods from debit/credit cards, to full banking to the latest payment method of payment through cryptocurrency. This helps to reduce the effort of paying through physical money, thus making it much easier to pay through digital.

Cryptocurrency – Trend and Possibilities

Cryptocurrency continues to improve every day. It continues to grow your wealth, as does your virality on social media. A financial transfer tool of good reputation and growth enabler. The interesting thing is that there are more than 5000 cryptocurrencies.

2021 was a great year, but where do we go from here?

Let’s expand the situation here. Both Bitcoin and Ethereum touched the highest bars. Long-term investors depend on it. By the time you are reading this article, there may be some great cryptocurrency news. I will try to present here the future opportunities of cryptocurrency.

New rules are in place. They are under the carpets. Measures to reduce the risk of cybercriminals are in place. The aim is to make this currency a safe instrument for the people. For example: China announced in September that all cryptocurrency transactions are illegal. Clear rules will remove all obstacles to create a safe trade.

How Will the New Regulations Affect Retailers?

The IRS will find it easier to track tax evasion. Investors can keep a clear trading record. For example: recording any profit or loss on crypto-assets will be easy. On the other hand, the price of cryptocurrencies will also be affected by the fluctuating market.

ETF Approval – Something to Consider

The Bitcoin ETF first appeared on the NYSE. It will help investors buy cryptocurrency from existing companies. Due to increased demand, the equity and bond markets are involved. Let’s take a look at the investor’s perspective. The easy availability of cryptocurrency products helps people to buy them without any hassles. If you want to invest in a Bitcoin ETF, remember that the risks are the same as any other cryptocurrency. You have to be willing to take a risk. Otherwise, it is not worth investing your money.

What Does the Future Hold?

Bitcoin is the best in the crypto market. It has the highest market value. In November 2021, the price increased to $68000. In October, the price was $60000 while in July it was $30000. There is a lot of volatility in market prices. Experts say to keep the risk in the cryptocurrency market less than 5% in the portfolio. Talking about short-term growth, people are optimistic. Bitcoin price volatility is something to consider. If you want to play for a long time, short results should not affect you.

Looking from a corner to grow your wealth is not a good decision. Follow traditional investment tools other than cryptocurrency. For example: if you want cryptocurrency as a savings tool for your retirement, it’s time to rethink your choice. Keep your savings small and diversify. It will reduce the risk. At the same time, you will have more time to think about cryptocurrency.

It is important to use your money wisely and invest in cryptocurrency. One must evaluate the risk involved and make a decision. I hope this article will help you.

Online Marketing Software: Top 4 Programs for Different Types of Marketers

Since you can do almost anything with your phone or tablet these days, it’s no surprise that you can also make money and sell with apps. Why spend a lot of money paying a broker to make a trade for you when you can do it yourself? Even if you don’t know much or don’t know much, the best online stock trading platforms come with tips and resources to help you educate yourself.

You only need one or two good programs to make all your money. It also depends on your experience and the nature of the business.

Here is an overview of some of the most popular marketing software:


This was established before the Robinhood website. It’s free to start using, although you won’t get a chance to earn a lot of money. Recent support for Bitcoin has been added. The interface of the program is easy to understand and the information you need to help you make decisions is easy to grasp and understand. Robinhood uses the best security and privacy practices to protect investor information and assets.


This is a good choice for beginners. College students can take advantage of the free guides, and select retailers can even get “money back”. There are no free surprises, and you can make small trades for only $1 – $3.

Acorns is not for everyone, especially for serious, flexible traders who want a big profile.


The great thing about Stash is that it’s not an online stocking app – it’s an educational app designed to help you learn as you go. It allows users to start investing with as little as $5 and provides advice on which stocks might be right for you as you go. The money goes into individual stocks / EFTs, which are used for different topics, such as “natural” or “new”.

Handy Trader

This tool is developed by Interactive Brokers, and is available to Zacks Trade members. If you are not familiar with Zack’s Trade, it is a good platform for active traders and those who are interested in selling unusual goods. There are several investment options to choose from, including Options, EFTs, Bonds, Mutual Funds, and more. To help you make decisions, Handy Trader supports real-time charts and market data, and allows you to place orders either. immediately, or using a ticket to order.

In addition to providing the best online stock trading software, Zacks Trade and Interactive Brokers provide a platform for PC trading enthusiasts.

Four Ways to Help Global Business Growth

US exports continue to grow, but many American companies lack the international business knowledge to capitalize on this source of sales and profits. Increased trade cooperation and the weakening of the US dollar have created the best export market in years. U.S. exporters have reported growing demand for U.S. products – from popcorn to pet food. The US has enjoyed an 11 percent increase in exports – yet with 95 percent of the world’s population living outside US borders and the prospect of increased global trade, experts question why only 5 percent of US companies are exporting. But how do we start and encourage growth in foreign markets?


Entering new markets provides opportunities for greater revenue and profitability. However, this should be consistent with the company’s overall strategy. Improper, irregular, or indiscriminate export of goods destined for international development can lead to ineffectiveness of the project that soaks up limited resources with little return. Barriers to entry (services, restrictions, and marketing restrictions) must be identified and addressed. A SWOT analysis describing the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats will identify and help increase the company’s strengths, reduce its weaknesses, and focus on global opportunities.

A global growth plan aligned with business strategy will increase the chances of success. Strategic international development strategies such as sales, distribution, and marketing must be addressed. International development may be different enough from the US model that a lack of experience can limit the chances of success. Above all, there must be clear direction, full management support, and dedicated resources.


Small or medium-sized companies starting or expanding international business will find the US Department of Commerce (DOC) a happy partner in helping American companies succeed on a global scale. The organization coordinates resources from 19 Federal agencies to help American businesses develop their international strategies in an increasingly global environment. In an unfamiliar foreign market with confusing regulations, uncertainty, and risk, the DOC can help US businesses navigate export strategies and avoid risks such as payment defaults and brand and intellectual property damage.

DOC’s business services offer an incredible range of services that can be done including international market research, business events and missions, business leads, and introductions to prospective business partners. The Export-Import Bank and the Small Business Administration are teaming up to help finance the export of US goods and services to global markets, helping companies turn global strategies into sustainable businesses.

Businesses focused on international business development can help increase overseas growth. These companies are teams of skilled, experienced professionals who provide effective, cost-effective services to companies committed to increasing revenue and profitability through global growth. The various services offered vary by firm, but all help companies to conceptualize, implement, and manage large or small international projects. These tasks can range from identifying the potential of a product’s foreign market to managing the company’s foreign sales to identifying and qualifying foreign contracts.

A company that wants to enter the global market needs to invest in a dedicated tool for this process. This person should be the link connecting the organization’s resources, skills, and culture to global resources. As the business grows, additional resources must be provided to increase opportunities. This should be thought of as an investment rather than an investment.


The right way to enter a company’s market will depend on its global growth. For a company that is just beginning to develop into an international company, entering the market through domestic sales can be the fastest and most cost-effective way to enter a foreign market. Selling through local distributors is risky and offers a learning curve. Once the target country or region has been identified, which will naturally come from a SWOT analysis, the selection process can begin. Various US government agencies and trade organizations can provide information to begin narrowing down the choices.

Media and trade shows are also a good source. Factors to consider when choosing a market may include factors such as geographic location, market size and potential, cost of entry, and competitive environment. To narrow down the possibilities, visiting the country is essential. To get there, using marketing guidelines, competitive analysis, local government support, and interviewing potential stakeholders will provide information and insights. The main points in choosing a distributor are: willingness to provide a dedicated person, market leadership or history, business savvy, complementary and non-competitive products or services, location management, and financial stability.

Entering a new international market is often seen as an expansion of an existing business. As a result, many American companies ignore business guidelines that require thorough market analysis. Only with due diligence should one disclose information about services or products offered by advertising programs.

The entry method a company prefers – national distribution, joint venture, merger, or acquisition – depends on the company’s main objectives from sales opportunities to market-based growth opportunities.

Economic interdependence will lead to mutual cooperation. US companies need to ensure that potential partners share both short- and long-term goals to reduce diversity of thought and effort. Common and shared business/ethical principles increase communication, transparency, and efficiency. Employees must have complementary strengths and weaknesses to create a strong and effective partnership. Policies and procedures for conflict resolution and reconciliation must be written and agreed upon by all parties involved in order for the partnership to be successful.


All markets are similar. However, effective international marketing begins with recognizing that markets are also different in ways that are not immediately apparent. The key is to understand consumers and identify their needs through traditional market research. Focus groups can be particularly useful in identifying what foreign buyers want and need. Advertisers used to make offers must be local or local representatives. Employees who have a thorough understanding of market characteristics and idiosyncrasies will be particularly useful in disseminating the desired message and creating and enhancing the brand’s image. Language skills and intercultural communication are important in international marketing.

Perfect planning is essential. As the company executes a global strategy guided by a strong business plan, it is important to celebrate milestones and demonstrate against industry leaders.

Although by no means complete, these four steps will serve as a guide to successfully entering the global market and growing.

How to Test the Conductivity of an Electric Ring

The UK was the first and probably the only country in the world that still uses the 30 amp ring system for wiring sockets. The large ring circuit has been the subject of much discussion among electricians, but as an electrician you will undoubtedly need to test them in your work. Here is a summary of Ring Main inspection and testing procedures.

Caution- Please note that this is a ‘dead’ test so the distribution board, consumer panel or circuit must be electrically isolated. First you need to do the Safe Isolation Procedure and get permission to turn off the property.

Here’s how to try it:

Insulation resistance

Connect all devices and equipment from the ring circuit and test the measurements between Line, Neutral and Earth CPC.

End to End Ring Continuity Testing

Set your test meter to low resistance and ‘zero’ test leads. Measure the resistance of the ring continuity of any type of living, political and terrestrial rings. Write this end to end for future reference and enter the test paper. Note that where the earth conductors are small, the resistance will obviously be high. For example, twin and earth cables 1.5mm will be 1.66 times longer than 2.5mm.

Super Loop L&N test

Connect the live and neutral conductors from the ends of the ring and form a top loop. If at first this sounds confusing, try to draw the live and neutral loops of the ring circuit on a piece of paper with some connected parts. You will see that it forms one very large loop.

Measure the resistance between the ends you just connected together. The reading taken between the ends of the upper loop should be about half of what you read continuously. You can verify mains wiring and connections by going to each socket and testing between live and neutral. Where the socket is on a ring and the connections are ‘good’, your readings should be within 0.05 of your initial loop reading on the distribution board.

This reading is not recorded but will be the basis for reading the ring main circuit.

A high reading may indicate that the socket is on a spur from the ring, that the connections need tightening or that the socket is faulty by giving a bad plug connection and needs to be replaced. Where the readings do not match, this may indicate that there are contacts and the ring circuit is connected.

Super Loop Test L&E

Connect the line and the earth conductors from the ends of the ring and make a super loop. Measure between the two sets of ends you just joined together. Critical reading should be about half of what you read continuously. You can verify the main wires and connections by testing the resistance on each socket as Live and Neutral we explained earlier. Testing between life and earth on metals also checks for correct polarity.

Current Trends in the Development of Internet Services

The web is constantly evolving and changing. And when new technologies arrive, old ones are retired or improved. It is very important to know the latest trends and apply them to your projects. Here is a list of current technology in this regard:

Progressive Web App

These are basically web apps or websites that look like mobile apps, especially in terms of functionality and design. It is the marriage of the browser and the interface of the mobile application to provide the user with an app-like experience, which makes it popular. PWA was introduced by Google a few years ago and has several advantages. Among these are instant downloads, push notifications and conversion rates, and the ability to add a PWA app to the user’s home screen.

The rise of chatbots

The customer is king, the customer is always right! There are enough aphorisms to prove how important the customer is. Businesses are always looking to improve customer service and make customers happier. With chatbots, they can do it 24/7, 365 days a year. These chatbots can answer common questions, direct users to relevant information and schedule appointments, among other tasks. Making it very useful and useful to have.

Motion UI Issues

The site should be simple, user-friendly and relevant. This is where the mobile UI, which has become very popular in mobile applications, comes into play. By using this you can create a functional and well-designed website. This is achieved through the use of animations, hovers, headers and transitions among others, so that your website stands out from its competitors.

Blockchain Technology

The buzzword these days is blockchain. You can combine it with cryptocurrency. But, it actually allows the storage of data along with information that is spread over thousands of computers around the world. This means that it would be impossible to destroy or hack the blockchain and the data is public and available to anyone who wants it. It can be used for standard file storage, chain analysis among others. This technology is rising and gaining more applications in the development of the Internet.

Single Page Websites

Our attention span is limited. There is so much going on, so many things that take our attention. It’s no wonder how many new websites want to be one page. This means you can find everything you need on one easy-to-navigate website, of course! You can reach different parts of the site by scrolling or clicking links. These types of websites work best on mobile phones. Also, the cost of development, design and maintenance is low due to the simplicity of the design.

Change is constant, and this also applies to web development. It is important for businesses to be proactive and innovative.

Network Routing Protocols – IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS, BGP


The purpose of routing protocols is to learn of available routes that exist on the enterprise network, build routing tables and make routing decisions. Some of the most common routing protocols include RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS and BGP. There are two primary routing protocol types although many different routing protocols defined with those two types. Link state and distance vector protocols comprise the primary types. Distance vector protocols advertise their routing table to all directly connected neighbors at regular frequent intervals using a lot of bandwidth and are slow to converge. When a route becomes unavailable, all router tables must be updated with that new information. The problem is with each router having to advertise that new information to its neighbors, it takes a long time for all routers to have a current accurate view of the network. Distance vector protocols use fixed length subnet masks which aren’t scalable. Link state protocols advertise routing updates only when they occur which uses bandwidth more effectively. Routers don’t advertise the routing table which makes convergence faster. The routing protocol will flood the network with link state advertisements to all neighbor routers per area in an attempt to converge the network with new route information. The incremental change is all that is advertised to all routers as a multicast LSA update. They use variable length subnet masks, which are scalable and use addressing more efficiently.

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a distance vector routing protocol developed by Cisco systems for routing multiple protocols across small and medium sized Cisco networks. It is proprietary which requires that you use Cisco routers. This contrasts with IP RIP and IPX RIP, which are designed for multi-vendor networks. IGRP will route IP, IPX, Decnet and AppleTalk which makes it very versatile for clients running many different protocols. It is somewhat more scalable than RIP since it supports a hop count of 100, only advertises every 90 seconds and uses a composite of five different metrics to select a best path destination. Note that since IGRP advertises less frequently, it uses less bandwidth than RIP but converges much slower since it is 90 seconds before IGRP routers are aware of network topology changes. IGRP does recognize assignment of different autonomous systems and automatically summarizes at network class boundaries. As well there is the option to load balance traffic across equal or unequal metric cost paths.


• Distance Vector

• Routes IP, IPX, Decnet, Appletalk

• Routing Table Advertisements Every 90 Seconds

• Metric: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliability, Load, MTU Size

• Hop Count: 100

• Fixed Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address

• Load Balancing Across 6 Equal or Unequal Cost Paths ( IOS 11.0 )

• Update Timer: 90 seconds

• Invalid Timer: 270 seconds

• Holddown Timer: 280 seconds

• Metric Calculation = destination path minimum bandwidth x delay (usec)

• Split Horizon

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a hybrid routing protocol developed by Cisco systems for routing many protocols across an enterprise Cisco network. It has characteristics of both distance vector routing protocols and link state routing protocols. It is proprietary which requires that you use Cisco routers. EIGRP will route the same protocols that IGRP routes (IP, IPX, Decnet and Appletalk) and use the same composite metrics as IGRP to select a best path destination. As well there is the option to load balance traffic across equal or unequal metric cost paths. Summarization is automatic at a network class address however it can be configured to summarize at subnet boundaries as well. Redistribution between IGRP and EIGRP is automatic as well. There is support for a hop count of 255 and variable length subnet masks.


Convergence with EIGRP is faster since it uses an algorithm called dual update algorithm or DUAL, which is run when a router detects that a particular route is unavailable. The router queries its neighbors looking for a feasible successor. That is defined as a neighbor with a least cost route to a particular destination that doesn’t cause any routing loops. EIGRP will update its routing table with the new route and the associated metric. Route changes are advertised only to affected routers when changes occur. That utilizes bandwidth more efficiently than distance vector routing protocols.

Autonomous Systems

EIGRP does recognize assignment of different autonomous systems which are processes running under the same administrative routing domain. Assigning different autonomous system numbers isn’t for defining a backbone such as with OSPF. With IGRP and EIGRP it is used to change route redistribution, filtering and summarization points.


• Advanced Distance Vector

• Routes IP, IPX, Decnet, Appletalk

• Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

• Metrics: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliability, Load, MTU Size

• Hop Count: 255

• Variable Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

• Load Balancing Across 6 Equal or Unequal Cost Paths (IOS 11.0)

• Hello Timer: 5 seconds on Ethernet / 60 seconds on Non-Broadcast

• Holddown Timer: 15 seconds on Ethernet / 180 seconds on Non-Broadcast

• Metric Calculation = destination path minimum bandwidth x delay (msec) x 256

• Split Horizon

• LSA Multicast Address:

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Open Shortest Path First is a true link state protocol developed as an open standard for routing IP across large multi-vendor networks. A link state protocol will send link state advertisements to all connected neighbors of the same area to communicate route information. Each OSPF enabled router, when started, will send hello packets to all directly connected OSPF routers. The hello packets contain information such as router timers, router ID and subnet mask. If the routers agree on the information they become OSPF neighbors. Once routers become neighbors they establish adjacencies by exchanging link state databases. Routers on point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links (as specified with the OSPF interface type setting) automatically establish adjacencies. Routers with OSPF interfaces configured as broadcast (Ethernet) and NBMA (Frame Relay) will use a designated router that establishes those adjacencies.


OSPF uses a hierarchy with assigned areas that connect to a core backbone of routers. Each area is defined by one or more routers that have established adjacencies. OSPF has defined backbone area 0, stub areas, not-so-stubby areas and totally stubby areas. Area 0 is built with a group of routers connected at a designated office or by WAN links across several offices. It is preferable to have all area 0 routers connected with a full mesh using an Ethernet segment at a core office. This provides for high performance and prevents partitioning of the area should a router connection fail. Area 0 is a transit area for all traffic from attached areas. Any inter-area traffic must route through area 0 first. Stub areas use a default route injected from the ABR to forward traffic destined for any external routes (LSA 5,7) to the area border router. Inter-area (LSA 3,4) and intra-area (LSA 1,2) routing is as usual. Totally stubby areas are a Cisco specification that uses a default route injected from the ABR for all inter-area and external routes. The totally stubby area doesn’t send or receive external or inter-area LSA’s. The not-so-stubby area ABR will advertise external routes with type 7 LSA. External routes aren’t received at that area type. Inter-area and intra-area routing is as usual. OSPF defines internal routers, backbone routers, area border routers (ABR) and autonomous system boundary routers (ASBR). Internal routers are specific to one area. Area border routers have interfaces that are assigned to more than one area such as area 0 and area 10. An autonomous system boundary router has interfaces assigned to OSPF and a different routing protocol such as EIGRP or BGP. A virtual link is utilized when an area doesn’t have a direct connection to area 0. A virtual link is established between an area border router for an area that isn’t connected to area 0, and an area border router for an area that is connected to area 0. Area design involves considering geographical location of offices and traffic flows across the enterprise. It is important to be able to summarize addresses for many offices per area and minimize broadcast traffic.


Fast convergence is accomplished with the SPF (Dijkstra) algorithm which determines a shortest path from source to destination. The routing table is built from running SPF which determines all routes from neighbor routers. Since each OSPF router has a copy of the topology database and routing table for its particular area, any route changes are detected faster than with distance vector protocols and alternate routes are determined.

Designated Router

Broadcast networks such as Ethernet and Non-Broadcast Multi Access networks such as Frame Relay have a designated router (DR) and a backup designated router (BDR) that are elected. Designated routers establish adjacencies with all routers on that network segment. This is to reduce broadcasts from all routers sending regular hello packets to its neighbors. The DR sends multicast packets to all routers that it has established adjacencies with. If the DR fails, it is the BDR that sends multicasts to specific routers. Each router is assigned a router ID, which is the highest assigned IP address on a working interface. OSPF uses the Router ID (RID) for all routing processes.


• Link State

• Routes IP

• Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

• Metric: Composite Cost of each Router to Destination (100,000,000/interface speed)

• Hop Count: None (Limited by Network)

• Variable Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

• Load Balancing Across 4 Equal Cost Paths

• Router Types: Internal, Backbone, ABR, ASBR

• Area Types: Backbone, Stubby, Not-So-Stubby, Totally Stubby

• LSA Types: Intra-Area (1,2) Inter-Area (3,4), External (5,7)

• Hello Timer Interval: 10 seconds for Ethernet / 30 seconds for Non-Broadcast

• Dead Timer Interval: 40 seconds for Ethernet / 120 seconds for Non-Broadcast

• LSA Multicast Address: and (DR/BDR) Don’t Filter!

• Interface Types: Point to Point, Broadcast, Non-Broadcast, Point to Multipoint, Loopback

Integrated IS-IS

Integrated Intermediate System – Intermediate System routing protocol is a link state protocol similar to OSPF that is used with large enterprise and ISP customers. An intermediate system is a router and IS-IS is the routing protocol that routes packets between intermediate systems. IS-IS utilizes a link state database and runs the SPF Dijkstra algorithm to select shortest paths routes. Neighbor routers on point to point and point to multipoint links establish adjacencies by sending hello packets and exchanging link state databases. IS-IS routers on broadcast and NBMA networks select a designated router that establishes adjacencies with all neighbor routers on that network. The designated router and each neighbor router will establish an adjacency with all neighbor routers by multicasting link state advertisements to the network itself. That is different from OSPF, which establishes adjacencies between the DR and each neighbor router only. IS-IS uses a hierarchical area structure with level 1 and level 2 router types. Level 1 routers are similar to OSPF intra-area routers, which have no direct connections outside of its area. Level 2 routers comprise the backbone area which connects different areas similar to OSPF area 0. With IS-IS a router can be an L1/L2 router which is like an OSPF area border router (ABR) which has connections with its area and the backbone area. The difference with IS-IS is that the links between routers comprise the area borders and not the router.

Each IS-IS router must have an assigned address that is unique for that routing domain. An address format is used which is comprised of an area ID and a system ID. The area ID is the assigned area number and the system ID is a MAC address from one of the router interfaces. There is support for variable length subnet masks, which is standard with all link state protocols. Note that IS-IS assigns the routing process to an interface instead of a network.


• Link State

• Routes IP, CLNS

• Routing Advertisements: Partial When Routing Changes Occur

• Metric: Variable Cost (default cost 10 assigned to each interface)

• Hop Count: None (limited by network)

• Variable Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

• Load Balancing Across 6 Equal Cost Paths

• Hello Timer Interval: 10 seconds

• Dead Timer Interval: 30 seconds

• Area Types: Hierarchical Topology similar to OSPF

• Router Types: Level 1 and Level 2

• LSP Types: Internal L1 and L2, External L2

• Designated Router Election, No BDR

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

Border Gateway Protocol is an exterior gateway protocol, which is different from the interior gateway protocols discussed so far. The distinction is important since the term autonomous system is used somewhat differently with protocols such as EIGRP than it is with BGP. Exterior gateway protocols such as BGP route between autonomous systems, which are assigned a particular AS number. AS numbers can be assigned to an office with one or several BGP routers. The BGP routing table is comprised of destination IP addresses, an associated AS-Path to reach that destination and a next hop router address. The AS-Path is a collection of AS numbers that represent each office involved with routing packets. Contrast that with EIGRP, which uses autonomous systems as well. The difference is their autonomous systems refer to a logical grouping of routers within the same administrative system. An EIGRP network can configure many autonomous systems. They are all managed by the company for defining route summarization, redistribution and filtering. BGP is utilized a lot by Internet Service Providers (ISP) and large enterprise companies that have dual homed internet connections with single or dual routers homed to the same or different Internet Service Providers. BGP will route packets across an ISP network, which is a separate routing domain that is managed by them. The ISP has its own assigned AS number, which is assigned by InterNIC. New customers can either request an AS assignment for their office from the ISP or InterNIC. A unique AS number assignment is required for customers when they connect using BGP. There are 10 defined attributes that have a particular order or sequence, which BGP utilizes as metrics to determine the best path to a destination. Companies with only one circuit connection to an ISP will implement a default route at their router, which forwards any packets that are destined for an external network. BGP routers will redistribute routing information (peering) with all IGP routers on the network (EIGRP, RIP, OSPF etc) which involve exchange of full routing tables. Once that is finished, incremental updates are sent with topology changes. The BGP default keepalive timer is 60 seconds while the hold timer is 180 seconds. Each BGP router can be configured to filter routing broadcasts with route maps instead of sending/receiving the entire internet routing table.


• Path Vector

• Routes IP

• Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

• Metrics: Weight, Local Preference, Local Originated, AS-Path, Origin Type, MED

• Hop Count: 255

• Variable Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

• Load Balancing Across 6 Equal Cost Paths

• Keepalive Timer: 60 seconds

• Holddown Timer: 180 seconds

• Designated Router: Route Reflector

BGP Routing Table Components

• Destination IP Address / Subnet Mask

• AS-Path

• Next Hop IP Address

An Introduction to Blockchain Technology for Beginners

Today, technology is developing at an amazing speed. One of the most recent breakthroughs in this area is the evolution of blockchain technology. New technology has had a profound impact on the financial sector. Instead, it was created for Bitcoin – a digital currency. But now, it also finds its use in several other things.

Passing here was probably the easiest. But, does anyone still know what Blockchain is?

Also a distributed database

Imagine an electronic spreadsheet, which is copied ten times over the Internet. Now, imagine that computer networks were designed so intelligently that they were constantly updating their own spreadsheets. This is a great demonstration of Blockchain. Blockchain holds information as a shared database. Also, this database is continuously synchronized.

This method has its advantages. It does not allow the database to be stored in any location. The articles in it have real human characteristics and can be easily verified. Since there are no centralized records, unauthorized users have no way to modify and corrupt the data. A distributed blockchain database is stored simultaneously by millions of computers, making data easily available to anyone on the Internet.

In order for the idea or technology to be clear, it is better to discuss the similarities of Google Docs.

Similar Google Docs for Blockchain

After the advent of Email, a common way to share documents is to send a Microsoft Word doc as an attachment to the recipient or recipients. The recipients will take their best time to go through it, before sending the revised book back. In this way, one has to wait until they receive a duplicate copy to see the changes that have been made. This happens because the sender is blocked from processing until the receiver has finished processing and resending the document. Today’s databases do not allow two owners to access the same record at the same time. This is how banks store the money of their customers or account holders.

Unlike established systems, Google docs allows both parties to access the same document at the same time. In addition, it also allows viewing one version of the document for both parties at the same time. Like a shared book, Google Docs also works as a shared document. A distributed phase is appropriate when the distribution involves multiple users. Blockchain technology is, in a sense, an extension of this concept. However, it is important to point out here that Blockchain does not need to share documents. In fact, it is just an illustration, which will help to have a clear idea of ​​this advanced technology.

Basics of Blockchain

Blockchain stores blocks of information across the network, which are identical. For this reason:

  • Information or data may not be controlled by any organization.
  • There may not be a single point of failure though.
  • The data is stored in a public network, which ensures complete transparency throughout the process.
  • The information stored in it cannot be lost.

Importance of blockchain developers

As mentioned earlier, blockchain technology has a very large application in the world of finance and banking. According to the World Bank, more than US$ 430 billion in remittances were sent through 2015. Therefore, Blockchain developers have a very important market.

The Blockchain solves the payment of the participants in such financial transactions. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) was developed, which enabled the average person to access desktop computers. Likewise, using a wallet is a popular GUI for blockchain technology. Users use this wallet to buy their desired products using Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency.

What is an ICO in Cryptocurrency?

ICO is short for Initial Public Offering. When launching a new cryptocurrency or crypto-token, developers offer a small amount of money to exchange it for other major cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum.

ICOs are amazing tools for rapid development funding to support new cryptocurrencies. Tokens issued during the ICO can be traded and traded on cryptocurrency exchanges, assuming there is sufficient demand for them.

The Ethereum ICO is one of the most popular success stories and the popularity of Initial Coin Offerings is growing as we speak.

A brief history of ICOs

Ripple is probably the first cryptocurrency distributed through an ICO. At the beginning of 2013, Ripple Labs started to develop the Ripple payment system and created about 100 billion XRP tokens. This was sold through an ICO to support the development of the Ripple platform.

Mastercoin is another cryptocurrency that has sold several million Bitcoin tokens during the ICO, and in 2013. Mastercoin aims to showcase Bitcoin transactions and execute smart contracts by creating a new layer on top of the existing Bitcoin code.

Of course, there are other cryptocurrencies that have been successfully funded through ICOs. Back in 2016, Lisk raised nearly $5 million during its Initial Funding.

However, Ethereum’s ICO that took place in 2014 is probably the most famous to date. During their ICO, the Ethereum Foundation sold ETH for 0.0005 Bitcoin each, raising approximately $20 million. With Ethereum harnessing the power of smart contracts, it paved the way for the next generation of First Aid.

ICO for Ethereum, the way to win

Ethereum’s smart contracts system has established the ERC20 protocol standard that establishes the basic rules for creating other shared tokens that can be purchased on the Ethereum blockchain. This allowed others to create their own, ERC20 compatible tokens that could be traded for ETH directly on the Ethereum network.

The DAO is a well-known example of the successful use of Ethereum smart contracts. The company raised $100 million in ETH and investors received it in exchange for DAO tokens that allowed them to participate in the management of the platform. Sadly, the DAO failed after it was hacked.

Ethereum’s ICO and their ERC20 protocol have defined the latest generation of blockchain monetization projects through Initial Coin Offerings.

It also made it easier to invest in other ERC20 tokens. You just transfer ETH, put the contract in your wallet and the new tokens will appear in your account so you can use them as you wish.

Obviously, not all cryptocurrencies with ERC20 tokens live on the Ethereum network but pretty much any new blockchain project can launch an Initial Public Offering.

Legal status of ICOs

When it comes to legal ICOs, it’s a jungle out there. In theory, tokens are traded as digital assets, not financial assets. Many jurisdictions have not regulated ICOs yet assuming that the founders have an experienced lawyer on their team, the entire process should be paperless.

Despite this, some authorities have recognized ICOs and are already working to regulate them in the same way as the sale of shares and securities.

Back in December 2017, the US Securities And Exchange Commission (SEC) classified ICO tokens as securities. In other words, the SEC plans to stop ICOs that it deems to be misleading money.

There are times when the sign is just a helpful sign. This means that the owner can use it to access a particular network or protocol where it cannot be interpreted as a financial security. However, tokens whose purpose is to appreciate in value are closer to the concept of security. In fact, most purchases are made for investment purposes.

Despite the efforts of the regulators, ICOs are still in the legal realm and until clear rules are established entrepreneurs will try to profit from Initial Offerings.

It’s also worth mentioning that when regulations are at their peak, the cost and effort required to comply can make ICOs less attractive compared to traditional fundraising methods.

A final word

Currently, ICOs are still an amazing way to raise new crypto-related funds and there have been many successful ones to come.

However, keep in mind that everyone is starting ICOs these days and most of these projects are scams or lack the solid foundation they need to succeed and make money. For this reason, you need to do your research and research the category and profile of any crypto project you want to invest in. There are several websites that list ICOs, just do a Google search and you will find alternatives. .

Coinbase says "No Choice" It is designed for Ripple

“No Decision” on New Coinbase, Coinbase Says Amid Ripple Rumors

Coinbase is pushing back on news that it would add Ripple’s XRP token to its trading portfolio.

The idea started after it was revealed that Coinbase chief operating officer and president Asiff Hirji could appear next to Ripple chief Brad Garlinghouse on a special part of the CNBC “Fast Money” program on March 6. In addition, despite the fact that there is any confirmation of the assumptions, the price of XRP rose above $ 1 on Monday.

Following hours of radio blackout on the matter, Coinbase used Twitter to push back against the rumors, explaining that the January announcement of the list of new cryptocurrencies – who are cautious about how the “committee of experts” finally make those decisions – had not changed.

Our statement of January 4, 2018 continues: we have not decided to add more products to GDAX or Coinbase.

As of a scheduled segment for CNBC, it is unclear whether Garlinghouse and Hirji will speak publicly or will be on the show alone. Host Melissa Lee posted a preview of the crypto-themed segment’s promo earlier today, which also features Passport Capital founder John Burbank and Social Capital founder and CEO Chamath Palihapitiya.

A representative for Ripple refuses to comment on the rumors.

Ripple has seen another great month without enduring its cryptocurrency XRP’s biggest losses compared to the unprecedented highs of early January.

XRP has attracted the attention of its customers by shooting up to 1,000 percent at the beginning of this year and new customers; its blockchain startup has been the talk of the crypto industry in 2018.

However, it is important for the newcomers to know that the root of all this interest is due to the true claims of the founders- in particular, that his technology can change the international reporting, improving the old methods followed for payments and money. among major financial institutions.

According to Ripple, not only is its product cheap and fast, but it also proudly admits that it has more options than the services available on the market today, which emphasizes the use of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology.

Coinbase just threw some cold water on Ripple fans who want to see their coins hit the popular market.

Rumors that Ripple’s XRP will be the next in line after Bitcoin Cash reached the heat of the pitch this week between currency types hype, and read others among the lines on Tuesday’s episode of CNBC’s Fast Money which is scheduled to show Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse and Coinbase President Asiff Hirji. in what appears to be a group discussion on cryptocurrency trends.

Opinions based on the Fast Money segment drove XRP to $1.07, up nearly 6% from its weekly level. Ripple’s XRP remains the only coin in the top five with a market cap that is not present on Coinbase, although given the central nature of XRP and very different goals compared to other cryptocurrency services, its absence is not surprising. However, there are many business interests and those factors do not prevent Coinbase from adding XRP in the future should they choose to do so.

Any statement to the contrary is false and is not allowed by the company.” Following this statement, XRP slowly retreated to its previous trend.

The company also linked in a January 5 blog post on its plans to add new products. The post states that “Coinbase will announce the addition of new assets through our blog post or other official channels.” The company probably doesn’t want to repeat the confusion surrounding the launch of Bitcoin Cash. Support for Coinbase’s newest asset was officially announced ahead of time, but the rollout was marred by high fees, trading freezes and internal trading investigations.